The Evolution of Furniture With a Variety of Designs – Design furniture has been part of the human experience since the dawn of history and evidence of such furniture can last up as far as the Neolithic period in the form of a wall mural painting found in Pompeii. Besides other examples have also been unearthed in Egyptian pyramids found in the tomb in Ghiordes (Modern Turkey). These notes will reveal the progress, development, styles and materials used in the design of furniture in each period.
The discovery of some of the most significant pieces of furniture ever designed also seems to be used as evidence. Various furniture design will outline some of the different periods of design furniture that was, and will provide basic information on the timeline of the history of furniture design.
1. Neolithic Furniture
A site that comes from 3100-2500 BC excavated in Skara Brae Orkney find a variety of stone furniture. Due to shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone is a material that is already available that can be turned into items for use in the household. Each house is equipped with an assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards, dressers and beds, shelves and chairs stone. Cupboard stone regarded as the most symbolically important because it will be confronted with the main entrance in each house to be first seen when entering the house.
2. Ancient Egyptian Furniture
Hyperarid climatic conditions of Egypt since the third millennium BC is the perfect climate for the preservation of organic materials. Thanks to this condition furniture Egypt, was excavated from various sites and also one of them is found at Tarkhan, an ancient bed that came from 2550 BC and the ancient seat of the tomb of Queen Hetepheres. In addition to these findings was also found ancient box, a bed and a chair of Thebes. There are two models of the furniture were excavated, which are gold plated to ornate furniture were found in the tomb of Pharaoh and simple chairs, tables and hampers.
3. Ancient Greek Furniture
Ancient Greek furniture design in the 2nd millennium BC, one of them including the chair klismos very famous. In 1738 and 1748 excavation of Herculaneum and Pompeii express the perfection of an ancient Roman furniture that is still preserved as affected by the ash eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Furniture is still looked good from 79 AD until an excavation in the eighteenth century. Characteristics of furniture beginning of this century that is strongly influenced by the design of furniture from ancient Egypt with a rigid rectangular shape, and arguably less attractive, but in the 4th century and the 5th, after the Greeks developed their own style, furniture becomes more curved look different and be seen flowing.
4. Medieval Furniture
In the medieval period is the time that most prominently reflected in the development of furniture design era. Furniture from the medieval period is very typical in varied styles, the characteristics of which the most famous is the intricately carved wood, chairs and a canopy bed. Basic color is gray, beige or black. The main forms are square or rectangular and there are very few curved lines.
5. Renaissance Furniture
Along with the other arts, the Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth marks a renaissance in the design of furniture because it is often inspired by the Greco-Roman tradition. Beginning in the fifteenth century, the same cultural revival occurred in northern Europe, particularly in the Netherlands, Belgium and northern France. This design is clearly different from the medieval and characterized by fancy new design models. The luxurious designs often use accents of flowers, plants and ornaments were rolling. The purpose of these pieces often to showcase the skill of the craftsperson.
6. Jacobean Furniture
After the Renaissance, there is a gradual change in style decorated comfortable furniture. At the foot of the table the UK, for example, be straight and narrow than the typical model of the previous and the foot is no longer a spiral shape, but turns into typical of this period. Furniture Jacobean later during the era of Oliver Cromwell famously stern and frugal, into a style that is suitable for that time, but with the return of the monarchy under Charles II, furniture Carolean once again become a better decoration, characterized by elaborate carved stretcher and colorful upholstery with tufted decoration. At the end of this period, the influence of the British style of William and Mary began to show the new changes. When compared with the period and Carolean Jacobean style furniture is lighter and more elegant look.
7. Colonial Furniture
In the United States during the early colonial period, furniture arrived along with the first immigrants. They brought a model typical of Jacobean furniture and period Carolean in English with them, and then make their own furniture in a similar style. This design is generally solid and heavy and carved with many legs that turn. In a harsher environment than some colonies this design model is a simple representation of their parenting styles that fit on an easier life.
8. Rococo Furniture
In the eighteenth century, furniture designs began to grow rapidly, although there are some styles are almost the same from the previous style, especially on one nation, as Palladianism in England or Louis Quinze in French furniture, such as the Rococo and Neoclassicism throughout Western Europe.
In reality ’18th century furniture design’ has referred to the wide variety of styles, including William and Mary, Queen Anne, Georgian, Chippendale, Hepplewhite, Sheraton, Adam and some French period Louis, Directoire and Empire.
Together with a similar style comes in different construction from mass-produced furniture next from the 19th century. Furniture eighteenth century is generally considered to represent a golden age. Cabinetmaker and highly trained in the craft of design furniture with a more advanced design.
9. Revival Furniture
In the 19th century was marked by the Industrial Revolution, which led to major changes in society. With the increase in the working population in the city, the emergence of a new class of wealthy buyer of furniture, together with the presence of mass production and reduction of individual craftsmen designer furniture.
The gradual development of furniture styles that have developed over centuries before being replaced by improvised imitation or revival style design. This revival style comes together including the revival of Gothic, Neoclassicism and Rococo revival becomes easier and cheaper to produce it during the industrial revolution.
With mass production technology in place it is a simple matter to graft historical ornaments true to all kinds of furniture, allowing for the creation of a continuous flow of revival styles to meet the demands of society. The result is the common denominator century furniture as excessive ornamentation in the form of metal that is applied or carving wood inlay models.
10. Art Noveau Furniture
The name Art Nouveau is the French term for ‘new art’ and it appeared in the late 19th century in Paris. This style is said to be influenced strongly by litographs of Czech artist Alphonse Mucha, who have the flat image with strong curved lines and is seen as a transfer of academic art. The main materials used Art Nouveau furniture and curves as graphic ornament is a hard wood and iron, to produce a strong structural support and stay slim.
11. Bauhaus Furniture
Due to the greater availability of the material before, and as awareness continues to grow from an aesthetic history and across cultures. Development of the furniture in the 20th century may be more diverse than in terms of style of all the centuries that preceded it.
The first three quarters of the twentieth century saw a style such as Art Deco, De Stijl, Bauhaus, Wiener Werkstatte, and Vienna all work to some degree in the modernist idiom. Bauhaus school founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919.
Despite its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus was built with the idea to create a total work of art, including furniture. Furniture design emerging from the Bauhaus into the design of the most influential in the presence of modern design.
12. Art Deco Furniture
Art Deco movement began in Paris in 1920 and it represents an elegant design, glamour, functionality and modernity. Linear art deco symmetry is the development that is different from the first with an asymmetrical model of art nouveau in style to its predecessor. Art deco suffered a decline in popularity during the late 1930s and early 1940s when it began mocked for allegedly presenting a false picture.
13. Modern Furniture
Born from the Bauhaus and Art Deco that come with modern style using materials developed including laminated plywood, plastic and fiberglass. In modern furnishings gilded carved dark wood and patterned fabric gave way to the glittering simplicity and geometry of polished metal.
Forms of modern furniture is to have a primary focus on originality, technical innovation, and finally developed until now. Various new and innovative materials capable of producing a particular mix of technological advances in science and art. The use of new materials such as steel in various forms that can be molded plywood and plastic, is commonly found in the creation of this new design.